The recent PATH (Predictive Approaches to Treatment effect Heterogeneity) Statement outlines principles, criteria, and key considerations for applying predictive approaches to clinical trials to provide patient-centered evidence in support of decision making. Here challenges in implementing the PATH Statement are addressed with the GUSTO-I trial as a case study.
Many researchers worry about violations of the proportional hazards assumption when comparing treatments in a randomized study. Besides the fact that this frequently makes them turn to a much worse approach, the harm done by violations of the proportional odds assumption usually do not prevent the proportional odds model from providing a reasonable treatment effect assessment.
This article discusses issues with unadjusted effect ratios such as odds ratios and hazard ratios, showing a simple example of non-generalizability of unadjusted odds ratios.
This article summarizes arguments for the claim that the primary analysis of treatment effect in a RCT should be with adjustment for baseline covariates. It reiterates some findings and statements from classic papers, with illustration on the GUSTO-I trial.
This article explains how the generalizability of randomized trial findings depends primarily on whether and how patient characteristics modify (interact with) the treatment effect. For an observational study this will be related to overlap in the propensity to receive treatment.