This article discusses issues with unadjusted effect ratios such as odds ratios and hazard ratios, showing a simple example of non-generalizability of unadjusted odds ratios.
This article summarizes arguments for the claim that the primary analysis of treatment effect in a RCT should be with adjustment for baseline covariates. It reiterates some findings and statements from classic papers, with illustration on the GUSTO-I trial.
This article explains how the generalizability of randomized trial findings depends primarily on whether and how patient characteristics modify (interact with) the treatment effect. For an observational study this will be related to overlap in the propensity to receive treatment.
Reasons are given for why heterogeneity of treatment effect must be demonstrated, not assumed. An example is presented that shows that HTE must exceed a certain level before personalizing treatment results in better decisions than using the average treatment effect for everyone.
This article shows an example formally testing for heterogeneity of treatment effect in the GUSTO-I trial, shows how to use penalized estimation to obtain patient-specific efficacy, and studies variation across patients in three measures of treatment effect.
This article provides my reflections after the PCORI/PACE Evidence and the Individual Patient meeting on 2018-05-31. The discussion includes a high-level view of heterogeneity of treatment effect in optimizing treatment for individual patients.
What are the major elements of learning from data that should inform the research process? How can we prevent having false confidence from statistical analysis? Does a Bayesian approach result in more honest answers to research questions? Is learning inherently subjective anyway, so we need to stop criticizing Bayesians' subjectivity? How important and possible is pre-specification? When should replication be required? These and other questions are discussed.
Professor of Biostatistics
Vanderbilt University School of Medicine
Professor of Psychiatry and, by courtesy, of Medicine (Cardiovascular Medicine) and of Biomedical Data Science
Stanford University School of Medicine
What clinicians learn from clinical practice, unless they routinely do n-of-one studies, is based on comparisons of unlikes. Then they criticize like-vs-like comparisons from randomized trials for not being generalizable.